dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a Baptist minister turned civil rights leader who promoted nonviolent activities to achieve equal rights for African Americans. His legacy relates to his ability to motivate state and local legislatures to end racial discrimination and provide economic justice for poor Americans in all aspects of their lives, including housing, employment, and property. education. He discovers some important facts about Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of Michael Luther King, Sr. and Alberta King. Martin's first name at birth was Michael, like his father's. His father changed their names to Martin after a visit to Germany in honor of the Protestant leader.Martin Luther.
Became a pastor at 19
King's father and grandfather were pastors, all pastors inEbenezer Baptist Churchin atlanta Young Martin followed in his family's footsteps and chose service as his vocation. At age 19 he became an ordained Baptist reverend. He served with his father as a co-pastor at Ebenezer before continuing his education.
Absolvent College des Morehouse
Martin Luther King, Jr. attended public schools in Atlanta and received Advanced Placement at Morehouse College when he was just 15 years old. His father and his grandfather had also attended Morehouse College. He earned a B.A. degree in sociology from Morehouse College in 1948.
Earned two graduate degrees
In 1951, Martin Luther King received a Bachelor of Divinity from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. He then went to Boston University to do his Ph.D. In 1955 he received his Ph.D. from Boston University in systematic theology.
Casado with Coretta Scott King
While attending Boston University, he met Coretta Scott, a singer and civil rights activist studying at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. They were married on June 18, 1953, at her parents' home in Heiberger, Alabama.
Moved to Montgomery, Alabama
In 1954, Martin Luther King accepted a call to pastor Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Alabama, his new girlfriend's home state. The church was located in the city of Montgomery, a highly segregated city where almost half of the citizens were African-American. As a civil rights activist, he was very active in the community, including serving on the executive committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Montgomery Improvement Association Foundation
In 1955, King, along with other executive members and officers of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, founded the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA). The MIA, a group of local black ministers and community leaders formed to improve race relations in Montgomery.
Leading the Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, as MIA president, King led the nonviolent Montgomery bus boycott that eventually became theDesegregation of city buses. The bus boycott resulted from therose parksbus incident Rosa, the local NAACP secretary, is known to have refused to give up her seat to a white woman. King's participation in the 381-day boycott led to thisSupreme Court of the United Statesrule that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
He became a father of four
Coretta Scott King gave birth to Yolanda Denise King on November 17, 1955. Yolanda, the first of four children, was joined by her brother Martin Luther King III on October 23, 1957. Both were born in Montgomery; The two youngest children were born in Atlanta. Dexter Scott King joined the family on January 30, 1961, followed by Bernice Albertine King on March 28, 1963.
Co-founded and directed by SCLC
In 1957, Martin Luther King, Jr. collaboratedRalf Abernathyand many other civil rights leaders, activists, and pastors to found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in Atlanta. This organization was formed to fight segregation and promote the civil rights of African Americans in the United States through civil disobedience, such as sit-ins and demonstrations. King was elected president of the SCLC.
Moved back to Atlanta
In 1960, King left his pastoral position in Alabama to return to his hometown of Atlanta. While continuing to serve as co-pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, he began campaigning for civil rights full-time through nonviolent means such as sit-ins and demonstrations. The goals of the civil rights movement focused on eliminating racial discrimination in many areas, including public transportation, employment, elections, and education.
Protest and arrest in Birmingham
In April 1963, King organized and participated in nonviolent protests in Birmingham to end segregation in Alabama's largest city. This protest led to a brutal police response with dogs and high-pressure water hoses, which was widely reported on the national network news. Television cameras showed King and other peaceful protesters being attacked by police dogs and fire hoses and later arrested. King refused bail and later paid hisLetter from a Birmingham prison.
March organized in Washington for work and freedom
King worked with other civil rights activists to organize the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to protest against racial discrimination in employment and racial segregation in schools, demanding fair wages for all workers. The march was the largest gathering in the history of Washington, DC. In this march, King delivered his famousI have a dreamRed am Lincoln Memorial.
Rolle in Selma march for the right to vote
In the spring of 1965, King helped organize campaign marches from Selma to Montgomery. During the March 7 event, King and many other nonviolent protesters were brutalized by police officers on the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama. Many protesters were seriously injured during the march; One person was killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Dozens more, including King, were arrested. The day became known as Bloody Sunday. A few days later, on March 21, the protesters met again and were able to finish their multi-day march toward the state capital in Montgomery.
Extensive civil rights guidance provided
King was very active as a civil rights activist from his arrival in Montgomery in 1955 until his untimely death in 1968. His strong belief in nonviolent protest helped set the tone.civil rights movement. Examples of the many actions King participated in include:
- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Greensboro, North Carolina, which held sit-ins at food counters in the South
- Freedom Riders traveling in pairs on interstate buses to test a new federal law against segregated bus terminals
- Congress of Racial Equality, which had chapters in the US focused on combating racial segregation.
- Walk to Freedom, a march of 250,000 participants to demand jobs and civil rights
- Poor People's Campaign, an attempt to help all people living in poor economic conditions
- Various civil rights demonstrations
Change made in law
The civil rights movement, largely due to the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., led to significant changes in United States law. Nonviolent action and civil disobedience led to many high-profile crises, in which the government was forced to take a position or act with legislation. Boycotts, sit-ins, protests, and demonstrations eventually had an impact, and important legislation against racial discrimination was passed. Notable laws during this period were:
- Civil Rights Act of 1964- Prohibited discrimination in employment and public accommodation on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin
- Voting Rights Act of 1965- the right to vote restored and protected
- Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965- allows immigration of groups other than those from traditional European countries
- Fair Housing Act of 1968- housing discrimination prohibited for sale or rent
Widely recognized for achievements in the area of civil rights
Martin Luther King received more than fifty honorary degrees and several prestigious awards during or because of his thirteen years of activity in the civil rights movement. Examples include:
- Named "Man of the Year" by Time magazine in 1963 to commemorate his position as a spokesman for the civil rights movement.
- Medallion of American Freedoms in 1965 by the American Jewish Committee for the Advancement of Human Liberty
- 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for the successful use of nonviolent action to combat racial equality
- Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest award given to citizens by the President of the United States, by Jimmy Carter in 1977 (awarded posthumously)
- Congressional Gold Medal, the highest award awarded by an act of the US Congress in 2004 (awarded posthumously)
published several books
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a lifelong author. He wrote many books and articles about his beliefs and experiences in the civil rights movement while fighting for African-Americans.king's writingscontain:
- Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
- power to love
- Why can't we wait?
- the measure of a man
- The trumpet of conscience
- Where do we go from here: chaos or community
Sanitation workers strike in Memphis
In early 1968, King participated in a growing civil rights demonstration in Memphis, Tennessee. On February 12, 1968, 1,300 black sanitation workers in Memphis began protesting their terrible working conditions, discrimination, and low pay. The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) and the workers demanded union recognition, higher wages and an end to discrimination. King made three trips to Memphis to support healthcare workers. The strike lasted 64 days, ending on April 12, 1968. King was assassinated in Memphis on April 3, the day after his last speech in support of the striking workers.
Focus on Memphis
King was in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968, staying at the Lorraine Motel in room 306. That night, King was standing on his balcony when he was struck by a bullet. King was taken to Saint Joseph Hospital. Although doctors tried to save his life, he was pronounced dead shortly after his arrival. Martin Luther King was only 39 years oldat the time of his death. The motel where he was shot now houses the National Civil Rights Museum.
A life of impact
The ShepherdDr. Martin Luther King jr.he lived a life of impact. The facts shared here about Martin Luther King, Jr. reflect just a few of his notable accomplishments. His life is proof that a person can do it.Change the world. Although it hasn't been around since 1968, it continues to inspire leaders in the constant fight for equality. A monument to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial stands on the southwestern part of the National Mall in Washington DCChronology of Martin Luther King, Jr.to get more perspective on the life of this great man. Keep learning about great black leaders by exploring themThe Kamala Harris Historic Trailbecome the first black female vice president of the United States
What are 5 things Martin Luther was known for? ›
- The Ninety-five Theses (1517) ...
- Against the Execrable Bull of the Antichrist (1520) ...
- New Testament in German (1522) ...
- Admonition to Peace Concerning the Twelve Articles of the Peasants (1525) ...
- Against the Murderous and Robbing Hordes of the Peasants (1525) ...
- Articles of Schwabach (1529)
He played a great role in creating the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Acts In 1964, at age 35, King was the youngest man ever to have received the Nobel Peace Prize and he is often quoted for the “I Have a Dream” speech he delivered in 1963. His assassination on April 4, 1968 was an event that shocked the world.What are 3 important events about Martin Luther King? ›
He was the driving force behind watershed events such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the 1963 March on Washington, which helped bring about such landmark legislation as the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act. King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 and is remembered each year on Martin Luther King Jr.What 2 Things did Martin Luther do? ›
His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his later works, Luther expressed antisemitic views, calling for the expulsion of Jews and burning of synagogues.What are 3 interesting facts about Martin Luther? ›
- A near death experience inspired him to become a monk. ...
- Martin Luther only left the German speaking lands once in his whole life. ...
- Luther had to be 'kidnapped' by his friend to avoid severe repercussions from the Catholic Church. ...
- He translated the entire New Testament from Greek to German in just 11 weeks.
No figure is more closely identified with the mid-20th century struggle for civil rights than Martin Luther King, Jr. His adoption of nonviolent resistance to achieve equal rights for Black Americans earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.How many speeches did Martin Luther King give? ›
Martin Luther King gave over 2,500 public speeches during his lifetime – many of them were delivered without a manuscript and with few notes, including, “I have a dream”.What was the most important thing that Martin Luther King said? ›
Freedom only comes through persistent revolt, through persistent agitation, through persistently rising up against the system of evil.What are 5 important dates from Dr King's life? ›
|15 January||Michael King, later known as Martin Luther King, Jr., is born at 501 Auburn Ave. in Atlanta, Georgia.|
|5 June||King is awarded his doctorate in systematic theology from Boston University.|
|17 November||Yolanda Denise King, the Kings' first child, is born.|
MLK helped bring about the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Each of these bills helped African Americans access civil rights across the country. King's speeches and writings allow us to continue learning from his beliefs and practices today.
What made MLK so powerful? ›
King's firm belief in racial equality, civil rights and justice for all was part of what made his speech so powerful. Because he believed in the power of his cause and the beauty of a better future, the crowd of over 250,000 did as well. Without conviction, any change you're trying to accomplish will likely fall flat.How many languages did Luther speak? ›
Throughout his life, Luther gathered insights and knowledge from the innate nature of being multi-lingual. He was skilled in the Greek, Hebrew and Latin languages.What did Martin Luther invent? ›
Martin Luther, a German teacher and a monk, brought about the Protestant Reformation when he challenged the Catholic Church's teachings starting in 1517. The Protestant Reformation was a religious reform movement that swept through Europe in the 1500s.What did Martin Luther defend? ›
On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses against papal indulgences, or the atonement of sins through monetary payment, on the door of the church at Wittenberg, Germany.Why is Martin Luther still important today? ›
First, there is the historical significance of Luther's life and work. Many people today have little to no understanding about the history of Christianity and how this history continues to shape our present world. Learning about Luther teaches us that the past is much more complicated and dynamic than we might realize.When did MLK give his speech? ›
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered this iconic 'I Have a Dream' speech at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963. See entire text of King's speech below.Where did MLK give his speech? ›
On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr., delivered a speech to a massive group of civil rights marchers gathered around the Lincoln memorial in Washington DC.Who first said I have a dream? ›
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his now-famous “I Have a Dream” speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Organizers of the event, officially known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, had hoped 100,000 people would attend.Who said I had a dream? ›
It was on this day in 1963 that Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his famous “I Have A Dream” speech as part of the March on Washington.Why Was Martin Luther King a hero? ›
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is known as one of America's greatest heroes. In the 1950s and 1960s, he fought to end laws that were unfair to African Americans. He worked to make sure all Americans had equal rights.
How did MLK inspire others? ›
Martin Luther King, Jr., influenced people around the world. He advocated for peaceful approaches to some of society's biggest problems. He organized a number of marches and protests and was a key figure in the American civil rights movement.How did Martin Luther King inspire America? ›
Martin Luther King Jr. had a positive impact on the world because he demonstrated peace in the face of violence. He exemplified resiliency and courage through his fight against injustice no matter the cost.What did Martin Luther believe? ›
His central teachings, that the Bible is the central source of religious authority and that salvation is reached through faith and not deeds, shaped the core of Protestantism. Although Luther was critical of the Catholic Church, he distanced himself from the radical successors who took up his mantle.How did Martin Luther King speak? ›
The reason King's speech was so vivid is because he included colorful language and used his words to paint a picture in the minds of listeners. King used metaphors throughout the entire speech, bringing simple sentences to life.Why did MLK talk like that? ›
Repetition - King was also a master of using a simple, yet key phrase like "I have a dream," again and again in his speeches. That kind of repetitive structure enabled him to clearly make his main point and at the same time make it easy for the audience to come along with him.Who was Martin Luther and what was he against? ›
Martin Luther (1483—1546) German theologian, professor, pastor, and church reformer. Luther began the Protestant Reformation with the publication of his Ninety-Five Theses on October 31, 1517. In this publication, he attacked the Church's sale of indulgences.Why did Martin Luther King fight for civil rights? ›
Martin Luther King Jr. sought to raise the public consciousness of racism, to end racial discrimination and segregation in the United States. While his goal was racial equality, King plotted out a series of smaller objectives that involved local grassroots campaigns for equal rights for African Americans.